Structural MRI provides a variety of information, including the integrity of grey and white matter, and both quantitative and qualitative shapes and size of substructures.
Functional MRI demonstrates brain activation by recording T2* signal changes due to increased blood oxygenation level (BOLD signal), related to neural activity. Task-based and task-fee (resting-state) fMRI are two main approaches to assess brain functional activity and network connectivity.
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigate water diffusion patterns and evaluate it in multiple different directions to explore micro-anatomical structure of the brain.
Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a technique of performing perfusion imaging without the use of contrast agent. This technique utilizes arterial water as an internal diffusible tracer which is usually achieved by magnetically labelling incoming blood.
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